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Assignment #3 1-9. Design a non-inverting amplifier with a voltage gain of approximately 12 with an input resistance of 12 kΩ . Use SPICE to confirm the result using a simple model of the OpAmp. Solution: The non-inverting amplifier has an input resistance of infinity. Therfore, one alternative is to place a 12k resistor from the positive input terminal of the OpAmp to ground - this yields an input resistance of 12k || (Large OpAmp Ri) ≈ 12k. To yield a gain of 12, choose resistor ratio in the branched from the negative terminal of the OpAmp to have a ratio of 11:1 since the non-inverting gain is: where Rf is the feedback resistor connecting the output to the negative OpAmp input terminal and RG is the resistor connecting the negative OpAmp input terminal to ground. Using standard value resistors, I chose RG = 2k and Rf = 22k. An alternate scheme could be to include a series resistance connected to vs. In order to meet the specified input resistance the sum of that series resistance and a resistor from the positive OpAmp input terminal must equal to Rin. Since this resistor network at the source is a voltage divider, the values of Rf and Rg must be altered to meet the voltage gain of 12. I chose the following: Rs1 = 6.04k, Rs2 = 6.04k, Rg = 1k, and Rf = 23.2k. This yields a gain of approximately 12. 1-12. Design an operational amplifier circuit to meet the following specifications: • vo = 3.0 vi2 - 5.0 vi1 • Ri1 = 15 kΩ (the input resistance seen by source vi1) • Ri2 = 25 kΩ (the input resistance seen by source vi2) Solution: The basic configuration of the difference amp is used: R1 R2 v i1 − R3 vo v i2 + R4 Use superposition to solve for the two signal inputs. The input resistance of the inverting path is R1 = Ri1 and the input resistance of the non-inverting path is (R3 + R4) = Ri2 = 25k. In the inverting amplifier path: Ri1 = R1 =15k so R2 = -Av R1 where Av = -5.0, and R1 = 15k yielding R2 = 75k. For the non-inverting case: Given the values for R1 and R2 the non-inverting gain at the positive OpAmp input terminal is 6.0. However, since vo = 3.0 vi2 - 5.0 vi1 , the noninverting gain must be 3.0 which is half of 6.0. Therefore, let R3 = R4 = 12.5k ≈ 12.4k. The resulting circuit is shown below. R 1 15k v R 2 75k i1 R 3 − v 12.4k v i2 o + R 4 12.4k 1-14. What is the expression of the output voltage for the circuit shown for vi1 = cos (ω o t ) and vi 2 = 1.5 cos (ω o t + 30°) ? R1 5.1kΩ v R2 20kΩ i1 +15 V v i2 − R3 10kΩ v o + R4 27kΩ -15 V Use SPICE to confirm the result. Solution: ⎛ R4 ⎞⎛ R2 ⎞ ⎛R ⎞ ⎟⎟⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟ − vi1 ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ . Plugging in the resistor values By superposition: vo = vi 2 ⎜⎜ ⎝ R1 ⎠ ⎝ R3 + R4 ⎠⎝ R1 ⎠ yields: vo = 3.59 vi2 − 3.92 vi1 . Now substitute vi1 and vi2 into the previous expression: vo = 3.59 [1.5cos(ωot +30°)] − 3.92 cos(ωot) . You can do this by using Euler's equation: vo = 3.59 •1.5• 0.5[exp ( j(ωot +30°))+ exp (− j(ωot +30°))] − 3.92• 0.5[exp ( jωot)+ exp (− jωot)] or like me and use my HP48GX in phasor notation to get the result: 2.79∠74.56° = 2.79cos (ωot +74.56°) 1-23. Design an OpAmp differential amplifier with: a) a gain of 67 and a minimum input resistance of 22 kΩ for each input. b) For an OpAmp with CMRR = 67 with a maximum common-mode signal of 0.08V, find the differential input signal for which the differential-mode output is greater than 90 times the common-mode output. Solution RA RB va Rina RC vb − vo + RD Rinb Let RA /RB = RC /RD ; then vo = (RB /RA)(vb − va). Since required gain is 67, let RB /RA = 67. Using superposition and Thevenin equivalent analysis for input resistances, we know that Rina = RA and Rinb = RC + RD . So let Rina = RA ≥ 22k ⇒ RA = 33k, Rinb = RC + RD ≥ 22k So RB = 67(33k) ≈ 2.2M ; let RC = 33k and RD = 2.2M ⇒ Rinb = 2.233M > 22k (b) ADMvDM > 90ACMvCM 90v 90vCM = CMRR ⇒ vDM > 0.0032V so vDM >90vCMACM /ADM = CMRR CM 20 20 ACM 10 10